CO2 generation is an inherent part of the cement production process, due to the calcination of the most important raw material, limestone (CaCO3 converted to CaO and CO2): around 60 % of the CO2 emissions from the clinker burning process are due to this reaction. There are currently no feasible methods to produce clinker and thus cement without releasing CO2 from CaCO3, and the cement production process emissions contribute to around 5% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions. In addition there are the emissions from combustion at the cement plant of fuels, which are to a large extent fossil, as well as the generation of electric power required for e.g. grinding of raw materials and clinker. Replacement of fossil fuels with renewables and waste is increasing but still limited in cement plant combustion, and the necessary electric power can in the future come from renewables or fossil power generation with CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS). Because cement plants typically have a lifetime as long as 30-50 years, technologies must be developed to enable retrofit of CO2 capture to existing cement plants. Against this background, the Horizon 2020 project CEMCAP has been developed. The CEMCAP consortium comprises the following partners:
SINTEF Energy Research is project coordinator. The main contribution of TNO in this project is testing the applicability of pre-commercial membranes for the membrane-assisted CO2 liquefaction process and compile and evaluate existing post-capture CO2 management options. Transport and storage as well as utilisation of CO2 in products, especially in the form of carbonates, will be studied taking into account the perspective of the cement industry.
This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 641185 and is supported by the Swiss State Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation (SERI) under contract number 15.0160.