The radical reduction of CO2 emissions requires a major transition in the transport sector where petroleum-based fuels currently dominate. Electric driving is an important option for passenger transport. For heavy freight, shipping and aviation, CO2-neutral liquid fuels will be needed in the coming decades. ECN part of TNO develops technology for fuel production based on biomass and on electricity (power-to-fuels). The production of fuels is closely related to the production of sustainable raw materials for the chemical industry. Making the petrochemical industry sustainable is an important challenge for the Netherlands because the sector is one of the cornerstones of the Dutch economy.