Our work

MACC - Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate

MACC-II - Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate - Interim Implementation is a Collaborative Project (2011-2014) funded by the European Union under the 7th Framework Programme. It is coordinated by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and operated by a 36-member consortium. MACC-II, the successor of MACC, is the current pre-operational Copernicus Atmosphere Service.

The MACC computational approach

MACC II will prepare for full operations in terms of continuity, sustainability and availability. It will adapt the system to make use of observations from new satellites, in particular the first of the atmospheric Sentinels, and will interface with FP7 RTD projects that contribute towards long-term service improvement. MACC II will ensure that its service lines best meet both the requirements of downstream-service providers and end users, and the requirements of the global scientific user community.
MACC-II provides data records on atmospheric composition for recent years, data for monitoring present conditions and forecasts for a few days ahead (Fig. 1). MACC-II combines state-of-the-art atmospheric modelling with Earth observation data to provide information services covering European air quality, global atmospheric composition, climate forcing, the ozone layer and UV and solar energy, and emissions and surface fluxes.

Concerns and needs

Some of today's most important environmental concerns relate to the composition of the atmosphere. Most prominent is the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases. Climate warming is offset to a degree by a cooling effect of increased aerosol concentrations, but the extent of the offset was identified by the IPCC as key uncertainty in the driving of climate change. Aerosols (PM), ozone and other pollutants determine the quality of air around us, affecting human health and life expectancy, ecosystems and the fabric of the built environment. Accompanying these environmental concerns is a parallel set of needs. The scientific community needs data to monitor and interpret change. Policy-makers need monitoring, forecasting and interpretive information to develop, implement and assess both regulatory controls to mitigate effects and adaptive responses to unavoidable short-term events and long-term change. Business organizations have a range of needs for operational and planning purposes.

Spatial distribution of fine aerosol (PM2.5) emission over Europe in 2009

Emissions and AQ modelling

TNO's involvement in MACC is attributable to its high-tech expertise in the field of emissions and research into air quality and climate. For this project we develop and maintain a high resolution European emissions database (the TNO-MACC emission data) and use our air quality (AQ) model LOTOS-Euros to contribute to operational air quality expectation across Europe as available from the MACC website. Furthermore, we improve the air quality modeling and forecast by using data assimilation techniques and satellite data. (Fig. 2). The TNO-MACC emission data set is widely used in Europe, not only in MACC but in many scientific projects as well as in important model intercomparisons such as the AQMEII initiative coordinated by the EC JRC and the US EPA.


Climate, Air and Sustainability

Translating knowledge of emissions and air quality into solutions for environmental issues: this is the area of expertise of Climate, Air & Sustainability (CAS). In doing so, we take into account... Read more
See also


Dr. ir. Hugo Denier van der Gon



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