Water recycling in industry is often an elegant way to reduce water consumption. Waste water of high quality forms an excellent method to optimize water chains. Water recycling often leads to energy and cost savings. This is especially true for hot or cold water streams.
TNO gives special attention to components that can recycle without being removed, like persistent organic compounds. Depending on the nature of the contaminants, these can be selectively removed. To lower the cost of water treatment, standardization in process water quality is proposed by TNO. A very specific waste stream for recycling is the membrane retentate or ro-concentrate produced in the desalination of sea or surface water. Energy efficient dewatering by membrane distillation can lead to low cost crystallizing salt products. Eventually, this leads to a situation without waste streams. TNO proposes since January 2006 development in this area. The proposal is named zero-waste brine treatment/NO WASTE and is open for applications. The technology is called MEMBRINE®