Fair Machine Learning combats biases
An AI tool bases its calculations on data. If the data is biased, the calculations will be biased. If there was once a male preference within a profession, then this will be adopted by AI tools for recruitment. So the AI tool may wrongly give a better judgement to men. This can be prevented by de-correlating the data from gender. Gender and possible related proxies will no longer be predictive for job suitability. TNO expects to use Fair Machine Learning to select appropriate candidates in a fair and unbiased manner.
TNO makes generative adversarial network models using fair machine learning
TNO carries out the de-correlation for Fair Machine Learning using a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) model. This model tries to balance two conflicting criteria:
- Minimising the number of changes to the dataset
- Making sure that somebody’s gender is no longer identifiable from the remaining characteristics
When weighing up the criteria, the model generalises the existing characteristics of individuals into more general characteristics. An example would be generalising postcodes according to neighbourhoods, neighbourhoods according to cities and cities according to countries. The end result is a dataset in which a person’s gender (criterion 2) is practically unrecognisable. In short, the gender bias has disappeared from the dataset.
Fair machine learning is relevant to all forms of discrimination arising from historical data
Fair Machine Learning is relevant to all forms of discrimination and prejudice that arise from the use of biased data. In addition to recruitment and selection, it is also important that the AI algorithm is fair when it comes to supervision, inspection and enforcement tasks. Gender, religion and ethnicity should not be used as selection characteristics.
If used responsibly, AI machine learning tools can increase efficiency and effectiveness when finding comparable individuals for all kinds of selection tasks. However, historical biases (which are less striking without these AI tools) are being structurally and systematically furthered by them. Fair Machine Learning reduces and prevents such discrimination.
Christopher BrewsterFunctie:Senior scientist
Christopher Brewster is a Senior Scientist in the Data Science group and Professor of the Application of Emerging Tecnologies in the Institute of Data Science, Maastricht University. His research has focussed on the application of Semantic Technologies, Open and Linked Data, interoperability architectures and Data Governance, mostly to the food and agriculture domains.
Daniël WormFunctie:Senior consultant
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You can read about how AI is educated in Chapter 1. How can we make clear to AI which goals we want to pursue as humans? Andhow can we ensure intelligent systems will always function in service of society?
Innovation with AI
What does that world look like in concrete terms? Using numerous examples, TNO has created a prognosis for the future in Chapter 2. Regarding construction, for example, in which AI will be used to check the quality, safety, and energy efficiency of buildings before they are actually built. Or healthcare, where robots will partly take over caregivers’ tasks and AI will be able to autonomously develop medicines.
Innovating with innovation AI
How AI will change research itself is explained in Chapter 3. For example, what role will AI be permitted to play in knowledge sharing? And what will happen when we make machines work with insurmountably large data sets?
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Rob de Wijk on the rise of AI in geopolitical context
Anne Fleur van Veenstra, director of science at TNO’s SA&P unit, interviews Rob de Wijk, emeritus professor of international relations in Leiden and founder of The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies. Rob is also a much sought-after expert who appears on radio and television programmes. What does the rise of AI mean geopolitically and in armed conflicts?