Integrated Air & Missile Defence (IAMD) entails both the defence against conventional air threats, such as aircraft, helicopters, unmanned aerial vehicles and balloons (air defence), as well as the defence against ballistic missiles and cruise missiles (missile defence).

The word 'integrated' indicates the technical and operational collaboration between systems of different military branches or even various Armed Forces to provide a robust and layered defensive architecture. The Netherlands Armed Forces has a broad arsenal of air and missile defence systems in its inventory. The Royal Netherlands Navy sails the seas with its Air Defence Command Frigates, the Royal Netherlands Air Force possesses the most advanced version of the Patriot systems, and the Royal Netherlands Army recently introduced its Army Ground Based Air Defence System (AGBADS).IAMD is an important pillar within the Netherlands Armed Forces. The Netherlands plays an important role in this domain, both politically as well as militarily. As one of the few NATO countries with an expeditionary IAMD capability, the Netherlands has extensive experience in deploying their systems operationally. Furthermore, the Netherlands takes a principal role in various NATO Missile Defence committees and bodies. The Dutch make a political and military contribution – at a high level – to the multi-national exercise Nimble Titan.

Most importantly, since the late 90s, the Netherlands have been organizing the largest international Air & Missile Defence exercise in the world, Joint Project Optic Windmill (JPOW). TNO has been building up a very broad knowledge base in the area of Air & Missile Defence for the last 25 years. This knowledge pertains foremost to the topics of modeling and simulation; operational analysis and optimization; concept development & experimentation; multi-criteria methodologies; and support during exercises, life firings and after action analyses.This knowledge base is built up through research programmes, of which recently the 2006-2010 Programme has been completed with great success. That programme was aimed at a joint air and missile defence capability, in which collaborative training and operating were the focus points. Knowlegde has been built and expanded concerning threats, weapon systems, sensor systems and network, consequence of intercept ('what happens áfter an intercept?') and human factors in air and missile defence.

The programme has been succeeded by the 2011-2014 Programme, where the emphasis lies on C-RAM (counter rockets artillery & mortars), defence against long range ballistic missiles and defence against asymmetric air threats (such as small unmanned vehicles – mini UAVs – and renegade aircraft). TNO uses its extensive knowlegde base for the benefit of (inter)national policy support, procurement studies, exercises and system integration projects, primarily for the Netherlands Armed Forces, but also for foreign governments and industries. Thanks to the utilization of its knowledgde base, in cooperation with the Netherlands Armed Forces and Dutch industry, TNO has attained a unique position in the Air & Missile Defence domain. TNO has a leading role globally at all levels. Examples include the provision of support in defining policy and vision at high political-military level (strategic), high-quality support in simulation exercises and experiments (operational), and complex technical analysis for specific conservation, upgrade or replacement issues.


John de Bie

  • Operations & Human Factors