TNO has developed a dedicated test method to evaluate the ballistic performance of spall liners. Although no international standards are prescribed, TNO can accurately and consistently determine the reduction of the spall angle as a result of using spall liners.

Spall liner test setup, a typical spall fragmentation image and output data.

The test-setup is compatible with any shape or size of armour and spall liner. If it is desired TNO can provide the armour samples. In the indoor large caliber facility a large array of threats are available for the spall liner test. Most commonly TNO uses EFP, shaped charges and KE projectiles ranging from 20 mm to 35 mm. The facility is equipped with X-ray shadowgraph equipment and can provide high speed images for further analysis.

Spall Angle and High Speed Video

To determine the spall angle TNO uses highly accurate digitizers to measure the fragment impacts on witness plates. The image of the witness plates is then processed to calculate the spall angle. TNO can provide a detailed report of the performance of your samples as well as detailed photography and high speed video recordings.

Our work

Services Ballistics Research

The customers of the ballistics research laboratory consist of both defence ministries, the international defence industry as well as the civilian industry. Read more

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On 22nd and 23rd May 2019, five innovative solutions were assessed in a realistic simulation of a flooding scenario in The Hague, The Netherlands. The simulation was part of a two-day tabletop DRIVER+... Read more



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