Solar Energy facilities

  • Characterization lab - copyright Robert Goddyn.
    Cell process labs: Class 10000 cleanroom. Wet chemical benches, 4-stack and 5-stack diffusion and anneal furnaces, PECVD, LPCVD, spatial ALD, e-beam PVD, PLD, thick film printing, belt furnace rapid anneal. All processing on samples up to industrial wafer size, and on industrially relevant equipment (mostly small production line tools, with no or limited automation). A significant part of the tools are in-kind contributions made by partners.
  • Cell characterization labs: FTIR, spectral ellipsometry, reflection-transmission, THz sheet resistance imaging, PL, EL, full area spectral response, Sinton lifetime and suns-Voc testers, solar simulators (steady state and multi-flash), lock-in IR thermography, TLM, CV-MOS, surface profiler. SEM, TEM, confocal microscopy, etc. are available at a service department within TNO.
  • Module process labs: processing up to full size (60 cells and larger) modules. Two full-size laminators, of which one with optional cooling, lamination oven for 3D modules, conductive backsheet patterning tool, cell pick and place tool, flash tester with variable temperature control, laser punching of encapsulant and backsheet opening for back-contact modules, 5-busbar tabber-stringers, power coater.
  • Module characterization labs: Solar simulators (steady state and multi-flash), DH, TC, UV, PID degradation test chambers, outdoor test setup (GHI, DHI, I-V tracers with simultaneous recording), outdoor test set-up for module and system electronics, IR, EL, torsion and peel testers, hail tester, wet leakage test set-up, felt-pad test. On-site access to advanced spectroscopy (FTIR, UV/vis), SEM, TEM, Soxlet for gel content.
  • Module and system electronics labs: grid simulation, arcing test (will be set up in H1-2020),
  • Cell modeling: ATLAS, GenPro
  • Module and system modeling: in-house developed BIGEYE PV system modeling, including capability for bifacial systems, power electronics, tandem PV.


Solar Energy: ‘Every surface generates electricity’